Tuesday, April 14, 2015

Codex Bezae online with High res and Text

The Codex Bezae (D) NT (Greek and Latin Bilingual MS) is online here now,
with both high res photos (zoomable) and transcription (text in Greek/Latin).

The four pages relevant are from John pages 236-238 inclusive of the Pericope de Adultera (John 7:53-8:11) along with the surrounding text:


Greek side (p236) Jn 7:43-8:4

Latin side (237) Jn 7:43-8:4

Greek side (238) Jn 8:4-17

Latin side (239) Jn 8:4-17

Greek text: (p.236/238)

κατ(α) ιωαν(νην)
δι αυτον 44 πε τινες δε ηθελον εξ αυτων
πιασαι αυτον αλλ ουδεις
  επεβαλεν επ αυτον τας χειρας 45 ηλθον ουν
πϛ οι υπηρεται προς τους αρχιερεις
και φαρισαιους και ειπον αυτοις εκεινοι
  διατι ουκ ηγαγατε αυτον
46 απεκριθησαν δε οι ϋπηρεται ουδεποτε ουτως
ανθρωπος ελαλησεν ως ουτος λαλει
 47 απεκριθησαν αυτοις οι φαρισαιοι
μη κε ϋμεις πεπλανησθαι
48 μη τις εκ των αρχοντων πιστευει
  εις αυτον η εκ των φαρισαιων
49 αλλα ο οχλος ουτος ο μη γεινωσκων
τον νομον επικαταρατοι εισιν
  50 λεγει νεικοδημος προς αυτους · εις ων εξ αυτω(ν)
ο ελθων προς αυτον νυκτος το πρωτον
51 μη ο νομος ημων κρεινι τον ανθρωπον
  εαν μη ακουση πρωτον παρ αυτου
και επιγνωσθη τι εποιησεν
52 απεκριθησαν και ειπαν αυτω · μη και σοι εκ της
  γαλιλαιας ει · ερευνησον και ϊδε τας γραφας
οτι προφητης εκ της γαλιλαιας
ουκ εγειρεται 53 και επορευθησαν
 εκαστος εις τον οικον αυτου · 8: 1 ιης δε επορευθη
εις το ορος των ελαιων · 2 ορθρου δε
παλιν παραγεινεται εις το ειερον
  και πας ο λαος ηρχετο προς αυτον Lect. Note
3 αγουσιν δε οι γραμματεις και οι φαρισαιοι
επι αμαρτεια · γυναικα ειλημμενην
  και στησαντες αυτην εν μεσω · 4 λεγουσιν αυτω
εκπειραζοντες αυτον οι ϊερεις ϊνα εχωσιν
κατηγορειαν αυτου διδασκαλε αυτη η γυνη
  κατειληπται επαυτοφωρω μοιχευομενη 


 κατ(α) ιωαν(νην)
5 μωϋσης δε εν τω νομω εκελευσεν τας τοιαυτας
λιθαζειν · συ δε νυν τι λεγεις
 6 ο δε ιης κατω κυψας τω δακτυλω κατεγραφεν
εις την γην 7 ως δε επεμενον ερωτωντες
ανεκυψεν και ειπεν αυτοις · ο αναμαρτητος
  ϋμων πρωτος επ αυτην βαλετω λιθον
8 και παλιν κατακυψας τω δακτυλω
κατεγραφεν εις την γην 9 εκαστος δε
  των ϊουδαιων εξηρχετο αρξαμενοι απο των
πρεσβυτερων ωστε παντας εξελθειν
και κατελειφθη μονος και η γυνη εν μεσω ουσα
 10 ανακυψας δε ο ιης ειπεν τη γυναικει
που εισιν ουδεις σε κατεκρεινεν
11 κακεινη ειπεν αυτω ουδεις κε
  ο δε ειπεν ουδε εγω σε κατακρεινω
ϋπαγε απο του νυν μηκετι αμαρτανε
12 Lect. Note παλιν ουν ελαλησεν αυτοις ο ιης λεγων
  εγω ειμι το φως του κοσμου · ο ακολουθων εμοι
ου μη περιπατησει εν τη σκοτεια
αλλα εξει το φως της ζωης
  13 ειπον ουν αυτω οι φαρισαιοι
συ περι σεαυτου μαρτυρεις
η μαρτυρια σου ουκ εστιν αληθης
 14 απεκρειθη ο ιης και ειπεν αυτοις
καν εγω μαρτυρω περι εμαυτου
αληθεινη μου εστιν η μαρτυρεια
 οτι οιδα ποθεν ηλθον και που ϋπαγω
υμεις δε ουκ οικ ποθεν ερχομαι
η που ϋπαγω · 15 ϋμεις κατα την σαρκα κρεινετε
  εγω ου κρεινω ουδενα · 16 και εαν κρινω δε εγω
η κρισις η εμη αληθινη εστιν · οτι μονος εγω
ουκ ειμι · αλλα εγω και ο πεμψας με
 17 και εν τω νομω δε τω ϋμετερω 


_________________________________

Latin Text: (p.237/239)

sec(undum) iohan(nem) VII· VIII·
115 134

propter eum 44 quidam autem ex illis uolebant
adpraehendere eum sed nemo
  misit in illum manums 45 uenerunt ergo
ministri · ad principes sacerdotum
et farisaeos et dixerunt eis illi
  quare non adduxistis illum
46 responderunt autem ministri · numquid sic
homo locutus est quomodo hic loquituitur
  47 responderunt illis pharisaei
numquid et uos seducti estis
48 numquid aliquis de principibus credit
  in eum aut de pharisaeis
49 sed turba haec quae nescit
legem maledicti sunt
 50 dicit nicodemus ad illos unus ex illis
qui uenit ad illum nocte ante hoc
51 numquid lex nostra iudicat hominem
 si non audiat ante ab ipso
et cognoscatur quid fecit
52 responderunt et dixerunt ei · numquid et tu de
 de galilaea es scrutina et uide scripturas
quoniam propheta de galilaea
non surgit 53 et abierunt
  unusquisque in domum suam · 8: 1 ihs autem abiit viii·
in montem oliuarum · 2 mane autem
iterum uenit in templum Note
  et omnis populus ueniebat ad eum
3 adducunt autem scribae et pharisaei
in peccato muliere mulierem conpraehensam
  et statuentes eam in medio
4 dicunt illi temptantes eum sacerdotes ut haberent
accusare eum magister haec mulier
 conpraehensa est palam in adulterio 


 sec(undum) iohan(nem) VIII·
116 135

5 moyses autem in lege praecepit tales
lapidare · tu autem nunc quid dicis ·
 6 ihs autem inclinatus Note · digito suo scribebat
in terram 7 cum autem inmanerent interrogant es
erexit se et dixit illis quis est sine peccato
 uestrum prior super eam mittat lapidem
8 et iterum inclinatus digito suo
scribebat in terram · 9 unusquisque autem
  iudaeorum exiebant incipientes
a presbyteris uti omnes exire
et remansit solus · et mulier in medio cum esset
 10 erigens autem se ihs dixit mulieri
ubi sunt nemo te condemnauit
11 ad illa dixit illi nemo dme
  ad ille dixit nec ego te condemno
uade et ex hoc iam noli peccare
12 iterum ergo loquebatur ad illos ihs dicens
  ego sum lux mundi · qui me sequitur
non ambulauit in tenebris
sed habebit lucem uitae
 13 dixerunt autem illi pharisaei
tu de te testimonium dicis
testimonium tuum non est uerum
  14 respondit ihs et dixit illis
etsi ego testificor de me
uerum est testimonium meum
  quoniam scio unde ueni et ubi uado
uos autem nescitis unde uenio
et ubi uado · 15 uos secundum carnem iudicatis
 ego autem neminem iudico · 16 et si iudico tamen ego
iudicium meum uerum est · quoniam solus ego
non sum · sed ego et qui me misit
 17 sed et in lege uestra 


...

Tuesday, April 7, 2015

Matthew: The Second Earliest Witness to the PA?




'But I say unto you, That whosoever looketh on a woman
to lust after her hath committed adultery
with her already in his heart.'
- Matthew 5:28 KJV


This 'quote' is from the Sermon on the Mount,
which is an artificial and non-historical speech
that is really a kind of 'Halakah' or attempt
to sum up Jesus' teaching, but divides much of it from its context.

This 'quote' is not an authentic saying of Jesus,
but is in fact prime forensic evidence for the authenticity of John 8:1-11.

When we grasp that this verse is an interpretation of Jesus,
inspired by His actions in John 8:1-11,
we immediately get several valuable things out of it:

(1) John 8:1-11 is authentic, and although problematic because of its ambiguity,
was given an interpretation by the early Church that Jews and Christians could accept,
allowing them to skip over the more difficult questions raised by
the original incident.

(2) Matthew (or the church-committe that created it) overstepped his (their) authority,
in assigning meanings to Jesus' actions that were not necessarily originally intended by Jesus.

(3) The 'sayings' of Jesus in Matthew are 'elaborated' and interpreted,
often provided without their original context, and so are neither verifiable,
nor binding for Christians who want to follow Jesus precisely.

This verse is good case in point.


No rational person can accept that the mere thought or momentary
consideration of a crime is or can be fully equal to consenting to it,
planning it, and acting on it, with real-world results.

What Jesus did teach remains true, namely that thinking, desiring,
and scheming leads to sinning, and may involve sin, but they are not
all equivalent acts, nor do they result in equal guilt.

Jesus Himself refutes such a claim in another passage
which is likely a very authentic saying from a different speech:
"No good tree bears bad fruit, nor does a bad tree bear good fruit." - Luke 6:43
This saying also has been elaborated and expanded in Matthew,
for the purpose of explaining it and expounding it,
"You will know them by their fruits. Grapes are not gathered from thorn bushes nor figs from thistles, are they? So every good tree bears good fruit, but the bad tree bears bad fruit. A good tree cannot produce bad fruit, nor can a bad tree produce good fruit. Every tree that does not bear good fruit is cut down and thrown into the fire.* So then, you will know them by their fruits. " - Matt. 7:16-20
...however this did not likely happen in public orations by Jesus,
since in Mark we are told how Jesus really operated:
As soon as He was alone, His followers, along with the twelve, began asking Him about the parables. And He was saying to them, "To you has been given the mystery of the kingdom of God, but those who are outside get everything in parables, so that while seeing they may see and not perceive, and while hearing they may hear and not understand, otherwise they might repent and be forgiven. "
. Mark 4:10-12
The account in Mark is earlier and likely more accurate in portraying
Jesus earthly ministry.

The 'Speech' in Matthew is really meant as a timeless message which
summarizes the main teachings of Jesus as the early church understood them,
and so is presented as a 'universal speech' to all believers for all time,
meant to remind hearers of all the teachings and stories behind the 'sayings'.

Matthew is the gospel prepared for church service and worship,
topically arranged and expanded with additional materials from
the era of the early church.

In the Gospels of Luke and Mark, Jesus begins His ministry
in Galilee (a synagogue in Capernaum), not on a mountain.

The interpretation that Matthew gives the Pericope de Adultera (John 8:1-11)
is important, for one of the (several) purposes behind Matthew's expansions is to provide ammo and arguments in disputes between Christians and Jews (who rejected Jesus as Messiah).

Here, a very likely early objection to John 8:1-11 was that it casts the Pharisees and scribes as possibly physically guilty of adultery with the woman, something which would be implausible to many Jews who might be potential converts.

Here Matthew has a ready reply:  The Pharisees were guilty of adultery anyway, for even thinking about committing fornication with the woman.  She was their captive, and may have been caught (in the act) without even having clothing on.  Finally, how long she was 'under arrest' away from the Romans and under who's charge would remain unclear and open to counter-questions. 

Note also that "is cut down and thrown into the fire.* in Matthew 7:20 
is also strong evidence that he is drawing from John's gospel in other places (cf. John 15:6 etc.), to remind his readers of those urgent teachings.